Fetishism is and west African old religion that made them think that what they cant explain it’s a god some of them thinking in other way like using magic called voodoo , preying to a rock or fish or even crocodile they also normally can eat human body, Portugal used this types of methods in , msgic trying these or even be in those
In Europe fetishism is also there. Witches magic and spells are also there people do belive that in those people there is magic
And that’s is fetishism
Totemism is a belief about the relationship between people and nature. The term totem comes from an Ojibwe word meaning “a relative of mine”. It was first written about in 1791 by a trader, James Long. It has been recorded across native tribes of America, Africa and Australia. It has been the subject of much research into ethnic groups. Usually, totems of a kinship group will be animals or plants. They will be represented in sacred objects and will belong exclusively to them.
Frazer, J.G. (1910) Totemism and Exogamy (4 vols) London: Macmillan
Levi Strauss, C. (1962) (1969) Totemism, Harmondsworth: Penguin
Barfield, Thomas (ed) (1997) The Dictionary of Anthropology, Blackwell
Bernard, Alan and Spencer, Jonathan (eds) (1996) Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Routledge.
Earlier anthropological perspectives – since termed the “old animism” – were concerned with knowledge surrounding what is alive and what factors make something alive. The “old animism” assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things. Critics of the “old animism” have accused it of preserving “colonialist and dualist worldviews and rhetoric”.
Edward Tylor’s definition
Edward Tylor developed animism as an anthropological theory.
The idea of animism was developed by the anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor in his 1871 book Primitive Culture, in which he defined it as “the general doctrine of souls and other spiritual beings in general.” According to Tylor, animism often includes “an idea of pervading life and will in nature”; belief that natural objects other than humans have souls. This formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as “fetishism”, although the terms now have distinct meanings.
For Tylor, animism represented the earliest form of religion, being situated within an evolutionary framework of religion which has developed in stages and which will ultimately lead to humanity rejecting religion altogether in favor of scientific rationality. Thus, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew. He did not believe that animism was inherently illogical, but suggested that it arose from early humans’ dreams and visions, and thus while being a rational system, it was based on erroneous, un-scientific observations about the nature of reality. Stringer notes that his reading of Primitive Culture led him to believe that Tylor was far more sympathetic in regard to “primitive” populations than many of his contemporaries, and that Tylor expressed no belief that there was any difference between the intellectual capabilities of “savage” people and Westerners.
Tylor had initially wanted to describe this phenomenon as “spiritualism,” however he decided against this upon recognizing that it would cause confusion with the modern religion of Spiritualism which was prevalent across Western nations during his own time. He adopted the term “animism” from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes. The earliest known usage in English appeared in 1819.
The idea that there had once been “one universal form of primitive religion” – whether labelled “animism”, “totemism”, or “shamanism” – has been dismissed as “unsophisticated” and “erroneous” by the archaeologist Timothy Insoll, who stated that “it removes complexity, a precondition of religion now, in all its variants”
Satanism, The influence of popular culture has allowed other practices to be drawn in under the broad banner of “black magic”, including the concept of Satanism. While the invocation of demons or spirits is an accepted part of black magic, this practice is distinct from the worship or deification of such spiritual beings. The two are usually combined in medieval beliefs about witchcraft.
Shamanism, In some areas, there are purported malevolent sorcerers who masquerade as real shamans and who entice tourists to drink ayahuasca in their presence. Shamans believe one of the purposes for this is to steal one’s energy and/or power, of which they believe every person has a limited stockpile.
Louisiana Voodoo, Voodoo, too, has been associated with modern “black magic”; drawn together in popular culture and fiction. However, while hexing or cursing may be accepted black magic practices, Voodoo has its own distinct history and traditions that have little to do with the traditions of modern witchcraft that developed with European practitioners like Gerald Gardner and Aleister Crowley.
In fact, Voodoo tradition makes its own distinction between black and white magic, with sorcerers like the Bokor known for using magic and rituals of both. But their penchant for magic associated with curses, poisons and zombies means they, and Voodoo in general, are regularly associated with black magic in particular.
Religions black magic, The links and interaction between black magic and religion are many and varied. Beyond black magic’s links to organised Satanism or its historical persecution by Christianity and its inquisitions, there are links between religious and black magic rituals. The Black Mass, for example, is a sacrilegious parody of the Catholic Mass. Likewise, a saining, though primarily a practice of white magic, is a Wiccan ritual analogous to a christening or baptism for an infant.
17th century priest, Étienne Guibourg, is said to have performed a series of Black Mass rituals with alleged witch Catherine Monvoisin for Madame de Montespan.
In Islam, al-Fatiha, al-Falaq, al-Nas and other Surahs are recited to protect against sorcery . In addition, using a Taweeth containing some of the 99 Names of Allah, Quranic verses have been used for centuries and have origins in the Hadith.