After the February Revolution in Transcaucasia national councils emerged, which were governed by the nation. These were founded by the Transcaucasian Muslims, the Georgians, and later the Armenians. Thus, the Western Armenian National Council was followed by the creation of the Eastern Armenian National Council.
1917 The first congress of Eastern Armenians took place in Tbilissi in September-October. More than half of the congressional delegates were members of the Dashnaktsutiun party. The Congress examined a number of important issues of external and internal nature (self-defense, migration, food, etc.). At the end, a 15-member Armenian (National) National Council was formed on a multiparty basis. Social-political figure, writer Avetis Aharonyan was elected chairman of the board. The Armenian National Council had its departments or commissariats, military, immigration, school, food, medical, etc. The Armenian National Council actually became the supreme power of the Armenian people until the proclamation of Armenia’s independence.
Besides the Armenian National Council established in Tiflis, local councils were also established as branches and local authorities. Armenian National Councils were established in Baku, Yerevan, Karabakh, Akhalkalaki and elsewhere.
Thus, national councils were established as OSCA and class-based workers, soldiers and peasant councils, as national authorities.
The First Assembly of the Western Armenians (the Congress of Refugees) took place on May 2-11, 1917 in Yerevan. Participated in 59 MPs, about 400 guests (representatives of political parties, clergymen, Russian, English, and Armenian pro-Armenian organizations that support Western-Armenian migrants). Andranik was elected as honorable president of the congress.
2. BREST-LITHUSSIAN TREATY
There are historical events that Armenians did not have direct participation, but they did not directly, but seriously influenced the fate of the Armenian people. The series of such events can be described as the Brest-Litovsk multilateral peace treaty on March 3, 1918.
This treaty was signed between Soviet Russia, the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire, Austro-Hungarian, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The contract was signed in five equal languages: Russian, German, Hungarian, Turkish, Bulgarian. True, there are five states in the treaty, but it is considered to be bilateral because it is legally signed between Soviet Russia and the Commonwealth countries (Quartet Alliance) acting as allies in the First World War. Under this treaty, Soviet Russia recognized itself as loser and went out of war.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was, first of all, a disgraceful treaty for Soviet Russia. It was the first major blow to the Bolshevik authorities in Russia and not just to Russia. By capturing the power, the Bolsheviks immediately showed that there were no sanctities and boundaries for them. They were ready to sacrifice everything for the sake of the maintenance and consolidation of power.
In World War I, until the spring of 1917, Russia won both in the Western and Caucasian fronts. The Russian troops had dominant positions in the West and in the Balkans against their enemies, and on the Caucasian Front, having the support of Armenians, they had captured all of Western Armenia.
But in February 1917 the revolution in Russia won, and the provisional government had to ask for a cease-fire in order to address the country’s internal problems. And in October 1917 the Bolsheviks seized the power and assumed the sole governance of the vast country.
Civil war broke out in Russia. The Lenin government was ready for great concessions and impunity for all the forces to solve Russia’s internal problems and to ensure the Bolsheviks’ victory in the civil war.
Already on December 9, 1917 Russia started negotiations with the countries of Astrakhan, separated from its former allies in Brest-Litovsk. The Russians themselves offered land for peace to the former enemies, to secure the desired peace for the establishment and consolidation of the Bolshevik power in Russia at the cost of great sacrifices.
By the power of Lenin, the Bolsheviks were holding talks with a Jewish diplomat Ioffen.
Under the Treaty of Germany, the Baltic Sea and Poland passed to Germany.
It is difficult to find another case in the world history when the defeated and defeated country in the war (Germany), by its fate, has great achievements and goes out of the war as a winning country.
Taking advantage of Russia’s weakness, during the negotiations, the countries of the Quartet underscored greater demands for Russia, which Bolsheviks refused to do, nevertheless, withdrew their troops from the tracks that were ready to surrender. However, it did not prevent the allies from re-attacking the whole front in February, which forced Russia to sign a peace treaty in line with German demands.
On February 22, a ceasefire was signed and Russia was given 48 hours to sign an ultimatum.
Finally, Russia took over and Brest from St. Petersburg, a Bolshevik party representative, Jewish Sokolnikov, signed the Brest-Litovsk disgraceful agreement.
The contract was signed on March 3 and ratified by Russia on March 8, at the 7th congress of the RC (b).
Russia was not only vast in the West, but was also obliged to return to Turkey the Armenian lands occupied during the First World War. Moreover, the Russian government expressed readiness to return the Turks to Kars and Ardahan regions attached to Russia by the Treaties of Adrianapolis and Berlin in 1878. By the way, Article 4 concerns the Armenian Question in the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.
It is noteworthy that the representatives of Germany, not Turkey, but the representatives of the Kars and Ardahan regions submitted their claim.
In total, Russia lost about one million square kilometers, about half of its population, the third part of the economic capacity of the former Russian Empire.
However, the humiliation of Russia did not end with the reconciliation of Brest-Litovsk. By the agreement signed in Berlin in August 1918, the Bolsheviks were obliged to pay Germany a huge 6 million mark-up warrant.
Brest-Litovsk reconciliation was a tragedy not only for Russia but also for many other nations, especially Armenians
At the same time, there was a separate power in Transcaucasia, the Transcaucasian Seim, who did not recognize the articles about the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, the Armenian lands. To discuss those articles, the Seimas in Trabzon Chkhenkeli, and from the Armenian side.